Swai Fish: 5 Reasons Not to Eat Pangasius

Photo: © Africa Studio - stock.adobe.com

Swai fish is one of the most popular freshwater fish on the market today. Regardless of what name may be used to market this fish in your area (Pangasius fish, Panga, Vietnamese Catfish, Basa Fish, Iridescent Shark), there are some very good reasons to avoid this exotic species. Not least among them: Swai is often heavily contaminated with toxins.

Where does Swai Fish come from?

Swai or pangasius fish is a popular item on restaurant menus and supermarket shelves.
Swai or pangasius fish is a popular item on restaurant menus and supermarket shelves. (Photo: CCO / Pixabay / Efraimstochter)

Swai fish fillets have become standard fare in many restaurants and supermarkets. Swai is popular not only for its very mild taste, but also for its flaky texture, low fat content, and comparatively low price.

The fish is raised almost exclusively in large factory fish farms in their native habitat of the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam. Frozen or chilled, it ends up on fish counters around the world.

Despite ongoing controversy, the total export of catfish from Vietnam reached 518 million USD in 2018. Exploding demand and extremely low prices have also lead to cases of seafood mislabelling – that is, intentional fish fraud. Vietnamese catfish had suddenly become a number of pricey wild-caught fish such as red snapper, grouper or cod on local menus around the United States.

Below, we’ve outlined five important reasons to avoid this exotic fish.

Reason #1: Swai Fish can Contain Toxins from Factory Farming

Swai fish are raised in huge basins in large factory fish farms along the Mekong Delta. These sites of cultivation are often overcrowded and dirty, conditions under which pathogens spread with relative ease. Medicine such as broad-spectrum antibiotics is commonly mixed into the feed of all fish as a precaution and to accelerate weight gain. Toxins, such as algaecides and disinfectants, are also used with little or no oversight. All of these substances, which are harmful to humans, accumulate in the bodies of the fish. They travel up the food chain and into our bodies when we eat contaminated fish.

Additionally, pangasius fish fillets are often treated with citric acid and phosphates during processing, allowing them to absorb more water before being frozen. This increases the swai’s weight by up to 20 percent, and means more money for the manufacturer (and higher prices for the consumer). When the water seeps away after you thaw the fish, the phosphates remain. While phosphates are an essential part of healthy nutrition, overconsumption of phosphates may increase your risk of heart disease and exacerbate kidney disease symptoms.

Reason #2: There are Nutritious Alternatives to Pangasius Fish

Nuts are a much richer source of omega-3s than pangasius fish
Nuts are a much richer source of omega-3s than pangasius fish. (Photo: CCO / Pixabay / marcelokato)

USDA dietary guidelines recommend eating two servings of fish per week. Fish is an important source of protein, iodine, and omega-3 fatty acids. Swai fish, however, does not contain much of these: 100 grams (0,2 lbs) of Swai consists of 78.1 grams (0.17 lbs) of nutrient-empty water. Fattier cold-water fish, such as salmon and mackerel, tend to be much better sources of omega-3s than the low-fat swai, which live in tropical waters. But it doesn’t have to be fish at all: Nuts, flaxseed, and many cooking oils are also excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids.

Reason #3: Swai Fish Farms are Harmful to Humans and Animals

Wastewater from factory fish farms contaminate the Mekong.
Wastewater from factory fish farms contaminate the Mekong. (Photo: CCO / Pixabay / einszweifrei)

In the Mekong Delta, factory fish farms are often established with little or no oversight. Untreated wastewater from the fish ponds flow directly into the river. The medications, chemicals, feces, and other pathogens it contains harm the river’s natural ecosystem, affecting the animals in the river. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been found in some parts of the Mekong Delta as the result of the release of pond sludge into local waterways.

For many people in South Vietnam, the heavily-polluted Mekong is also the main source of drinking water. The tainted water causes lasting damage to people and their environment. During floods, the fields of the Mekong Delta have also become contaminated with the pollutants carried in the river.

Some supermarkets have now reacted to the criticism: French-based Carrefour discontinued swai fish in January 2017. More retailers are following suit because all previous attempts to establish a certified, controlled swai supply chain have failed and the effects of swai-farming on the environment cannot be controlled.

Reason #4: Overfishing and Ocean Pollution

swai fish: reasons to avoid pangasius
Even protected species often can’t escape the nets and wind up as fish food. (Photo: CCO / Pixabay / cocoparisienne)

Today, about half of the fish we eat come from fish farms, which you might think protect the world’s oceans and the fish within. But the fish in the farms must be fed fishmeal. To produce this fishmeal, countless tons of fish are caught in the sea every year. Factories then process these fish into fishmeal through a very energy-intensive process.

Even protected species often wind up as fishmeal because there is no easy way to release them once they are caught in the nets among thousands of other fish.

When it comes to swai, aquaculture – or fish farming – has virtually replaced commercial fishery for this species. In many regions, catching fish is outlawed. Still, the practice is often continued illegally in order to supply local fish farms with large amounts of fry. It is believed that the wild-caught fry are of better quality than those raised in aquaculture.

Reason #5: Swai Fish Suffer a Cruel Death

Because of the antibiotics, commercially-raised swai fish are mature for harvest after about half a year, almost twice as fast as fish in natural conditions. Pangasius fish can also withstand a greater stocking density than other types of fish – that is, up to 70 fish per square meter. Considering the farmers operate on thin margins due to the low price of the fish, the fish must be killed as cheaply as possible. In some farms, the fish are shoveled into baskets and then taken alive to be sold.

Is there Better Fish I Can Buy?

Product eco-labels and seals help to identify which fish are farmed under sustainable conditions. Two common independent watchdog groups are the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC).

MSC seeks to “contribute to the health of the world’s oceans by recognizing and rewarding sustainable fishing practices, influencing the choices people make when buying seafood and working with our partners to transform the seafood market to a sustainable basis.”

ASC was founded by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and focuses specifically on aquaculture. In addition to ecological standards, the seal also monitors social standards based on the work regulations of the International Labour Organization (ILO).

Nevertheless, both seals have faced criticism for, among other things, certifying fish from heavily overfished stocks.

Unfortunately, if you want to be 100 percent certain you’re not eating fish from environmentally destructive fish farms or from overfished stocks, you’ll have to cut fish out of your diet altogether.

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This article was translated from German into English. You can view the original Pangasius: 5 gute Gründe gegen den exotischen Speisefisch.

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